Ein Planet ist ein stellares Objekt, welches in der Regel einen Stern auf einer Umlaufbahn. Ein Planet (des Sonnensystems) ist gemäß der Definition der Internationalen Astronomischen Union (IAU) ein Himmelskörper,. (a) der sich auf einer. IMP-Schülerinnen erstellen Planeten-Wiki. Da die Lernplattform „Moodle“ am St.-Dominikus-Gymnasium schon seit zehn Jahren eingesetzt wird, konnte sie sehr.
IMP-Schülerinnen erstellen Planeten-WikiPlaneten. • Zwergplaneten. • Natürliche Satelliten. (Monde). • Kleinkörper Verlust des neunten Planeten ☹ hotelollantaytambo.com Planeten sind Regionen von Missionen für bestimmte Gruppen von Schwierigkeiten und Fraktionen. Jeder Planet hat seinen eigenen Satz von Ressourcen und. Ein Planet ist ein großer Himmelskörper, der sich um eine Sonne bewegt. Das Klexikon ist wie eine Wikipedia für Kinder und Schüler.
Wiki Planeten Inhaltsverzeichnis VideoOur Planet - From Deserts to Grasslands - FULL EPISODE - Netflix
I raccoglitori di debris della Technora si ritroveranno dunque spesso coinvolti nei piani di sabotaggio e nelle azioni dimostrative del gruppo terroristico e saranno costretti a svolgere il proprio lavoro in condizioni altamente proibitive.
Altri elementi di spicco nella trama includono un'imminente missione esplorativa su Giove a bordo della nave sperimentale Von Braun, alimentata da motori tandem-mirror a fusione nucleare 3 He, e i tentativi di Hachimaki di entrare a far parte della missione.
Molti altri argomenti vengono sviluppati durante la serie contribuendo a svelare il carattere dei protagonisti e le motivazioni che li hanno spinti a raggiungere le stelle.
Il contenitore per i rifiuti ha cambiato forma e i macchinari per la raccolta dei detriti si trovano nella parte anteriore. Sono presenti inoltre delle Bio-farm, serre automatiche dedicate alla coltivazione dei vegetali e alla vita animale necessari per il sostentamento nutritivo dell'equipaggio.
La storia descrive navi che non emettono suoni nel vuoto e astronauti che soffrono continuamente di malattie dovute alla permanenza nello spazio, come ad esempio avvelenamento da radiazioni , cancro , osteoporosi e problemi psicologici dovuti alla lunga permanenza nel vuoto siderale oltre l'atmosfera terrestre.
L'opera si ricollega inoltre alla storia della missilistica e del volo spaziale. Durante la sequenza si susseguono immagini animate di pietre miliari della conquista dello spazio, come i primi test missilistici di Robert Goddard , i missili V2 , lo Sputnik 1 , il cane Laika , il razzo Vostok , l' Apollo 11 , lo Skylab , la Mir , la Stazione Spaziale Internazionale e lo Space Shuttle Endeavour.
Lo stesso personaggio di Yuri sembra in effetti essere stato ricalcato sul primo uomo nello spazio, Yuri Gagarin.
Yukimura cura in maniera particolareggiata la grafica del mecha design , delle basi e degli ospedali sparsi per la Terra e la Luna.
Il disegno rimane comunque preciso e particolareggiato per tutta la storia. Il disegno dell'anime si contraddistingue molto visibilmente dalla tecnica impiegata da Yukimura.
Nel , una navicella viene distrutta da dei detriti spaziali causando la morte di molti passeggeri.
Als wel aan de eerste twee voorwaarden wordt voldaan, maar niet aan de derde, wordt het betreffende hemellichaam een dwergplaneet genoemd.
In de Kuipergordel , buiten de baan van Neptunus, komen meer dwergplaneten voor. De bekendste daarvan is Pluto. Andere voorbeelden zijn Eris , Sedna en Quaoar.
Objecten die zich in een baan buiten Neptunus bevinden, maar nog steeds om de Zon draaien, worden ook geclassificeerd als transneptunisch object.
Pluto werd lang als planeet beschouwd, maar met de ontdekking van Eris in kwam de status van Pluto ter discussie te staan.
De IAU nam daarop de bovenstaande definitie aan, waardoor Pluto de planeetstatus verloor. Het verschil tussen een bruine dwerg en een planeet is dat bij de eerste wel enige kernfusie plaatsvindt en bij planeten niet.
Ook is de ontstaanswijze anders. Ten slotte verschilt een planeet van een maan omdat een planeet rond een ster beweegt. Bij een maan ligt het gemeenschappelijke zwaartepunt waaromheen beide objecten draaien binnen de oppervlakte van de planeet.
Wanneer de massa van de maan groot genoeg is om het massamiddelpunt buiten het oppervlakte van de planeet te plaatsen, spreekt men van een dubbelplaneet.
Bij de dwergplaneet Pluto en diens maan Charon ligt dit punt buiten Pluto, zodat er sprake is van een dubbeldwergplaneet. Omdat Charon kleiner is dan Pluto, wordt Charon desondanks vaak als maan beschouwd.
Enkele relatief dicht bij de Aarde staande planeten zijn in de oudheid al beschreven doordat zij met het blote oog zichtbaar zijn. It is visible to the naked eye in the night sky and can occasionally be seen in the daytime when the Sun is low.
They used Jupiter's roughly year orbit along the ecliptic to define the constellations of their zodiac.
The astronomical symbol for the planet, , is a stylized representation of the god's lightning bolt. The original Greek deity Zeus supplies the root zeno- , used to form some Jupiter-related words, such as zenographic.
Jovian is the adjectival form of Jupiter. The older adjectival form jovial , employed by astrologers in the Middle Ages , has come to mean "happy" or "merry", moods ascribed to Jupiter's astrological influence.
In Vedic astrology , Hindu astrologers named the planet after Brihaspati , the religious teacher of the gods, and often called it " Guru ", which literally means the "Heavy One".
In Central Asian Turkic myths , Jupiter is called Erendiz or Erentüz , from eren of uncertain meaning and yultuz "star".
There are many theories about the meaning of eren. These peoples calculated the period of the orbit of Jupiter as 11 years and days.
They believed that some social and natural events connected to Erentüz's movements on the sky. The observation of Jupiter dates back to at least the Babylonian astronomers of the 7th or 8th century BC.
By the 4th century BC, these observations had developed into the Chinese zodiac ,  with each year associated with a Tai Sui star and god controlling the region of the heavens opposite Jupiter's position in the night sky; these beliefs survive in some Taoist religious practices and in the East Asian zodiac's twelve animals, now often popularly assumed to be related to the arrival of the animals before Buddha.
If accurate, this would predate Galileo's discovery by nearly two millennia. In , Italian polymath Galileo Galilei discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter now known as the Galilean moons using a telescope; thought to be the first telescopic observation of moons other than Earth's.
One day after Galileo, Simon Marius independently discovered moons around Jupiter, though he did not publish his discovery in a book until These findings were also the first discovery of celestial motion not apparently centered on Earth.
The discovery was a major point in favor of Copernicus' heliocentric theory of the motions of the planets; Galileo's outspoken support of the Copernican theory placed him under the threat of the Inquisition.
During the s, Giovanni Cassini used a new telescope to discover spots and colorful bands on Jupiter and observed that the planet appeared oblate; that is, flattened at the poles.
He was also able to estimate the rotation period of the planet. The Great Red Spot, a prominent oval-shaped feature in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter, may have been observed as early as by Robert Hooke and in by Cassini, although this is disputed.
The pharmacist Heinrich Schwabe produced the earliest known drawing to show details of the Great Red Spot in The Red Spot was reportedly lost from sight on several occasions between and before becoming quite conspicuous in It was recorded as fading again in and at the start of the 20th century.
Both Giovanni Borelli and Cassini made careful tables of the motions of Jupiter's moons, allowing predictions of the times when the moons would pass before or behind the planet.
In , E. The discovery of this relatively small object, a testament to his keen eyesight, quickly made him famous. This moon was later named Amalthea.
In , Rupert Wildt identified absorption bands of ammonia and methane in the spectra of Jupiter. Three long-lived anticyclonic features termed white ovals were observed in For several decades they remained as separate features in the atmosphere, sometimes approaching each other but never merging.
Finally, two of the ovals merged in , then absorbed the third in , becoming Oval BA. In , Bernard Burke and Kenneth Franklin detected bursts of radio signals coming from Jupiter at Radio bursts from Jupiter were found to come in two forms: long bursts or L-bursts lasting up to several seconds, and short bursts or S-bursts that had a duration of less than a hundredth of a second.
Since , a number of automated spacecraft have visited Jupiter, most notably the Pioneer 10 space probe, the first spacecraft to get close enough to Jupiter to send back revelations about the properties and phenomena of the Solar System's largest planet.
Entering a Hohmann transfer orbit from Earth to Jupiter from low Earth orbit requires a delta-v of 6. Beginning in , several spacecraft have performed planetary flyby maneuvers that brought them within observation range of Jupiter.
The Pioneer missions obtained the first close-up images of Jupiter's atmosphere and several of its moons. They discovered that the radiation fields near the planet were much stronger than expected, but both spacecraft managed to survive in that environment.
The trajectories of these spacecraft were used to refine the mass estimates of the Jovian system. Radio occultations by the planet resulted in better measurements of Jupiter's diameter and the amount of polar flattening.
Six years later, the Voyager missions vastly improved the understanding of the Galilean moons and discovered Jupiter's rings. They also confirmed that the Great Red Spot was anticyclonic.
Comparison of images showed that the Red Spot had changed hue since the Pioneer missions, turning from orange to dark brown.
A torus of ionized atoms was discovered along Io's orbital path, and volcanoes were found on the moon's surface, some in the process of erupting.
As the spacecraft passed behind the planet, it observed flashes of lightning in the night side atmosphere. The next mission to encounter Jupiter was the Ulysses solar probe.
It performed a flyby maneuver to attain a polar orbit around the Sun. During this pass, the spacecraft conducted studies on Jupiter's magnetosphere.
Ulysses has no cameras so no images were taken. A second flyby six years later was at a much greater distance. In , the Cassini probe flew by Jupiter on its way to Saturn , and provided some of the highest-resolution images ever made of the planet.
The New Horizons probe flew by Jupiter for a gravity assist en route to Pluto. Its closest approach was on February 28, The first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter was the Galileo probe, which entered orbit on December 7, The spacecraft also witnessed the impact of Comet Shoemaker—Levy 9 as it approached Jupiter in , giving a unique vantage point for the event.
Its originally designed capacity was limited by the failed deployment of its high-gain radio antenna, although extensive information was still gained about the Jovian system from Galileo.
A kilogram titanium atmospheric probe was released from the spacecraft in July , entering Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7.
NASA's Juno mission arrived at Jupiter on July 4, and was expected to complete thirty-seven orbits over the next twenty months.
There has been great interest in studying the icy moons in detail because of the possibility of subsurface liquid oceans on Jupiter's moons Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.
Funding difficulties have delayed progress. Jupiter has 79 known natural satellites. The four largest moons, visible from Earth with binoculars on a clear night, known as the " Galilean moons ", are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.
The orbits of three of them Io, Europa, and Ganymede form a pattern known as a Laplace resonance ; for every four orbits that Io makes around Jupiter, Europa makes exactly two orbits and Ganymede makes exactly one.
This resonance causes the gravitational effects of the three large moons to distort their orbits into elliptical shapes, because each moon receives an extra tug from its neighbors at the same point in every orbit it makes.
The tidal force from Jupiter, on the other hand, works to circularize their orbits. The eccentricity of their orbits causes regular flexing of the three moons' shapes, with Jupiter's gravity stretching them out as they approach it and allowing them to spring back to more spherical shapes as they swing away.
This tidal flexing heats the moons' interiors by friction. This is seen most dramatically in the extraordinary volcanic activity of innermost Io which is subject to the strongest tidal forces , and to a lesser degree in the geological youth of Europa's surface indicating recent resurfacing of the moon's exterior.
Before the discoveries of the Voyager missions, Jupiter's moons were arranged neatly into four groups of four, based on commonality of their orbital elements.
Since then, the large number of new small outer moons has complicated this picture. There are now thought to be six main groups, although some are more distinct than others.
A basic sub-division is a grouping of the eight inner regular moons, which have nearly circular orbits near the plane of Jupiter's equator and are thought to have formed with Jupiter.
The remainder of the moons consist of an unknown number of small irregular moons with elliptical and inclined orbits, which are thought to be captured asteroids or fragments of captured asteroids.
Irregular moons that belong to a group share similar orbital elements and thus may have a common origin, perhaps as a larger moon or captured body that broke up.
Jupiter has a faint planetary ring system composed of three main segments: an inner torus of particles known as the halo, a relatively bright main ring, and an outer gossamer ring.
Material that would normally fall back to the moon is pulled into Jupiter because of its strong gravitational influence. The orbit of the material veers towards Jupiter and new material is added by additional impacts.
Along with the Sun, the gravitational influence of Jupiter has helped shape the Solar System. The orbits of most of the system's planets lie closer to Jupiter's orbital plane than the Sun's equatorial plane Mercury is the only planet that is closer to the Sun's equator in orbital tilt , the Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt are mostly caused by Jupiter, and the planet may have been responsible for the Late Heavy Bombardment of the inner Solar System's history.
Along with its moons, Jupiter's gravitational field controls numerous asteroids that have settled into the regions of the Lagrangian points preceding and following Jupiter in its orbit around the Sun.
These are known as the Trojan asteroids , and are divided into Greek and Trojan "camps" to commemorate the Iliad. The first of these, Achilles , was discovered by Max Wolf in ; since then more than two thousand have been discovered.
Most short-period comets belong to the Jupiter family—defined as comets with semi-major axes smaller than Jupiter's. Jupiter family comets are thought to form in the Kuiper belt outside the orbit of Neptune.
During close encounters with Jupiter their orbits are perturbed into a smaller period and then circularized by regular gravitational interaction with the Sun and Jupiter.
Due to the magnitude of Jupiter's mass, the center of gravity between it and the Sun lies just above the Sun's surface. Jupiter has been called the Solar System's vacuum cleaner,  because of its immense gravity well and location near the inner Solar System.
It receives the most frequent comet impacts of the Solar System's planets. A survey of early astronomical records and drawings suggested that a certain dark surface feature discovered by astronomer Giovanni Cassini in may have been an impact scar.
The survey initially produced eight more candidate sites as potential impact observations that he and others had recorded between and It was later determined, however, that these candidate sites had little or no possibility of being the results of the proposed impacts.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the planet. For the Roman god, see Jupiter mythology.
For other uses, see Jupiter disambiguation. Fifth planet from the Sun and largest planet in the Solar System. Full disk view in natural color, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in April [a].
Semi-major axis. Orbital period. Synodic period. Average orbital speed. Mean anomaly. Equatorial radius. Polar radius. Surface area. Mean density.
Surface gravity. Moment of inertia factor. Although objects more massive than 75 times that of Jupiter fuse hydrogen, objects of only 13 Jupiter masses can fuse deuterium.
Deuterium is quite rare, and most brown dwarfs would have ceased fusing deuterium long before their discovery, making them effectively indistinguishable from supermassive planets.
With the discovery during the latter half of the 20th century of more objects within the Solar System and large objects around other stars, disputes arose over what should constitute a planet.
There were particular disagreements over whether an object should be considered a planet if it was part of a distinct population such as a belt , or if it was large enough to generate energy by the thermonuclear fusion of deuterium.
A growing number of astronomers argued for Pluto to be declassified as a planet, because many similar objects approaching its size had been found in the same region of the Solar System the Kuiper belt during the s and early s.
Pluto was found to be just one small body in a population of thousands. Some of them, such as Quaoar , Sedna , and Eris , were heralded in the popular press as the tenth planet , failing to receive widespread scientific recognition.
Acknowledging the problem, the IAU set about creating the definition of planet , and produced one in August The number of planets dropped to the eight significantly larger bodies that had cleared their orbit Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune , and a new class of dwarf planets was created, initially containing three objects Ceres , Pluto and Eris.
There is no official definition of extrasolar planets. The positions statement incorporates the following guidelines, mostly focused upon the boundary between planets and brown dwarfs: .
This working definition has since been widely used by astronomers when publishing discoveries of exoplanets in academic journals. It does not address the dispute over the lower mass limit,  and so it steered clear of the controversy regarding objects within the Solar System.
This definition also makes no comment on the planetary status of objects orbiting brown dwarfs, such as 2Mb.
One definition of a sub-brown dwarf is a planet-mass object that formed through cloud collapse rather than accretion.
This formation distinction between a sub-brown dwarf and a planet is not universally agreed upon; astronomers are divided into two camps as whether to consider the formation process of a planet as part of its division in classification.
For example, a planet formed by accretion around a star may get ejected from the system to become free-floating, and likewise a sub-brown dwarf that formed on its own in a star cluster through cloud collapse may get captured into orbit around a star.
The 13 Jupiter-mass cutoff represents an average mass rather than a precise threshold value. Large objects will fuse most of their deuterium and smaller ones will fuse only a little, and the 13 M J value is somewhere in between.
Another criterion for separating planets and brown dwarfs, rather than deuterium fusion, formation process or location, is whether the core pressure is dominated by coulomb pressure or electron degeneracy pressure.
After much debate and one failed proposal, a large majority of those remaining at the meeting voted to pass a resolution. The resolution defines planets within the Solar System as follows: .
A "planet"  is a celestial body that a is in orbit around the Sun, b has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium nearly round shape, and c has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit.
Under this definition, the Solar System is considered to have eight planets. Bodies that fulfill the first two conditions but not the third such as Ceres, Pluto, and Eris are classified as dwarf planets , provided they are not also natural satellites of other planets.
Originally an IAU committee had proposed a definition that would have included a much larger number of planets as it did not include c as a criterion.
This definition is based in theories of planetary formation, in which planetary embryos initially clear their orbital neighborhood of other smaller objects.
As described by astronomer Steven Soter : . The IAU definition presents some challenges for exoplanets because the language is specific to the Solar System and because the criteria of roundness and orbital zone clearance are not presently observable.
Astronomer Jean-Luc Margot proposed a mathematical criterion that determines whether an object can clear its orbit during the lifetime of its host star, based on the mass of the planet, its semimajor axis, and the mass of its host star.
The table below lists Solar System bodies once considered to be planets but no longer considered as such by the IAU, as well as whether they would be considered planets under Stern's and definitions.
Ceres was subsequently classified by the IAU as a dwarf planet in The reporting of newly discovered large Kuiper belt objects as planets - particularly Eris - triggered the August IAU decision on what a planet is.
The names for the planets in the Western world are derived from the naming practices of the Romans, which ultimately derive from those of the Greeks and the Babylonians.
In ancient Greece , the two great luminaries the Sun and the Moon were called Helios and Selene ; the farthest planet Saturn was called Phainon , the shiner; followed by Phaethon Jupiter , "bright"; the red planet Mars was known as Pyroeis , the "fiery"; the brightest Venus was known as Phosphoros , the light bringer; and the fleeting final planet Mercury was called Stilbon , the gleamer.
The Greeks also made each planet sacred to one among their pantheon of gods, the Olympians : Helios and Selene were the names of both planets and gods; Phainon was sacred to Cronus , the Titan who fathered the Olympians; Phaethon was sacred to Zeus , Cronus's son who deposed him as king; Pyroeis was given to Ares , son of Zeus and god of war; Phosphoros was ruled by Aphrodite , the goddess of love; and Hermes , messenger of the gods and god of learning and wit, ruled over Stilbon.
The Greek practice of grafting their gods' names onto the planets was almost certainly borrowed from the Babylonians.
The Babylonians named Phosphoros after their goddess of love, Ishtar ; Pyroeis after their god of war, Nergal , Stilbon after their god of wisdom Nabu , and Phaethon after their chief god, Marduk.
For instance, the Babylonian Nergal was a god of war, and thus the Greeks identified him with Ares. Unlike Ares, Nergal was also god of pestilence and the underworld.
Today, most people in the western world know the planets by names derived from the Olympian pantheon of gods. Although modern Greeks still use their ancient names for the planets, other European languages, because of the influence of the Roman Empire and, later, the Catholic Church , use the Roman Latin names rather than the Greek ones.
The Romans, who, like the Greeks, were Indo-Europeans , shared with them a common pantheon under different names but lacked the rich narrative traditions that Greek poetic culture had given their gods.
During the later period of the Roman Republic , Roman writers borrowed much of the Greek narratives and applied them to their own pantheon, to the point where they became virtually indistinguishable.
Uranus is unique in that it is named for a Greek deity rather than his Roman counterpart. Some Romans , following a belief possibly originating in Mesopotamia but developed in Hellenistic Egypt , believed that the seven gods after whom the planets were named took hourly shifts in looking after affairs on Earth.
Because each day was named by the god that started it, this is also the order of the days of the week in the Roman calendar after the Nundinal cycle was rejected — and still preserved in many modern languages.
Earth is the only planet whose name in English is not derived from Greco-Roman mythology. Because it was only generally accepted as a planet in the 17th century,  there is no tradition of naming it after a god.
The same is true, in English at least, of the Sun and the Moon, though they are no longer generally considered planets.
The name originates from the 8th century Anglo-Saxon word erda , which means ground or soil and was first used in writing as the name of the sphere of Earth perhaps around Many of the Romance languages retain the old Roman word terra or some variation of it that was used with the meaning of "dry land" as opposed to "sea".
Non-European cultures use other planetary-naming systems. China and the countries of eastern Asia historically subject to Chinese cultural influence such as Japan, Korea and Vietnam use a naming system based on the five Chinese elements : water Mercury , metal Venus , fire Mars , wood Jupiter and earth Saturn.
It is not known with certainty how planets are formed. The prevailing theory is that they are formed during the collapse of a nebula into a thin disk of gas and dust.
A protostar forms at the core, surrounded by a rotating protoplanetary disk. Through accretion a process of sticky collision dust particles in the disk steadily accumulate mass to form ever-larger bodies.
Local concentrations of mass known as planetesimals form, and these accelerate the accretion process by drawing in additional material by their gravitational attraction.
These concentrations become ever denser until they collapse inward under gravity to form protoplanets. When the protostar has grown such that it ignites to form a star , the surviving disk is removed from the inside outward by photoevaporation , the solar wind , Poynting—Robertson drag and other effects.
Protoplanets that have avoided collisions may become natural satellites of planets through a process of gravitational capture, or remain in belts of other objects to become either dwarf planets or small bodies.
The energetic impacts of the smaller planetesimals as well as radioactive decay will heat up the growing planet, causing it to at least partially melt.
The interior of the planet begins to differentiate by mass, developing a denser core. With the discovery and observation of planetary systems around stars other than the Sun, it is becoming possible to elaborate, revise or even replace this account.
The level of metallicity —an astronomical term describing the abundance of chemical elements with an atomic number greater than 2 helium —is now thought to determine the likelihood that a star will have planets.
According to the IAU definition , there are eight planets in the Solar System, which are in increasing distance from the Sun :.
Jupiter is the largest, at Earth masses, whereas Mercury is the smallest, at 0. The number of geophysical planets in the solar system is unknown - previously considered to be potentially in the hundreds, but now only estimated at only the low double digits.
An exoplanet extrasolar planet is a planet outside the Solar System. As of 1 December , there are 4, confirmed exoplanets in 3, systems , with systems having more than one planet.
These pulsar planets are believed to have formed from the unusual remnants of the supernova that produced the pulsar, in a second round of planet formation, or else to be the remaining rocky cores of giant planets that survived the supernova and then decayed into their current orbits.
The first confirmed discovery of an extrasolar planet orbiting an ordinary main-sequence star occurred on 6 October , when Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz of the University of Geneva announced the detection of an exoplanet around 51 Pegasi.
From then until the Kepler mission most known extrasolar planets were gas giants comparable in mass to Jupiter or larger as they were more easily detected.
The catalog of Kepler candidate planets consists mostly of planets the size of Neptune and smaller, down to smaller than Mercury. There are types of planets that do not exist in the Solar System: super-Earths and mini-Neptunes , which could be rocky like Earth or a mixture of volatiles and gas like Neptune—a radius of 1.
Another possible type of planet is carbon planets , which form in systems with a higher proportion of carbon than in the Solar System. A study, analyzing gravitational microlensing data, estimates an average of at least 1.
On 20 December , the Kepler Space Telescope team reported the discovery of the first Earth-size exoplanets , Keplere  and Keplerf ,  orbiting a Sun-like star , Kepler Around 1 in 5 Sun-like stars have an "Earth-sized" [d] planet in the habitable [e] zone, so the nearest would be expected to be within 12 light-years distance from Earth.
There are exoplanets that are much closer to their parent star than any planet in the Solar System is to the Sun, and there are also exoplanets that are much farther from their star.
Mercury , the closest planet to the Sun at 0. The Kepler system has five of its planets in shorter orbits than Mercury's, all of them much more massive than Mercury.
Neptune is 30 AU from the Sun and takes years to orbit, but there are exoplanets that are hundreds of AU from their star and take more than a thousand years to orbit, e.
A planetary-mass object PMO , planemo ,  or planetary body is a celestial object with a mass that falls within the range of the definition of a planet: massive enough to achieve hydrostatic equilibrium to be rounded under its own gravity , but not enough to sustain core fusion like a star.
These include dwarf planets , which are rounded by their own gravity but not massive enough to clear their own orbit , planetary-mass moons , and free-floating planemos, which may have been ejected from a system rogue planets or formed through cloud-collapse rather than accretion sometimes called sub-brown dwarfs.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a true planet nor a natural satellite; it is in direct orbit of a star, and is massive enough for its gravity to compress it into a hydrostatically equilibrious shape usually a spheroid , but has not cleared the neighborhood of other material around its orbit.
Planetary scientist and New Horizons principal investigator Alan Stern , who proposed the term 'dwarf planet', has argued that location should not matter and that only geophysical attributes should be taken into account, and that dwarf planets are thus a subtype of planet.
The IAU accepted the term rather than the more neutral 'planetoid' but decided to classify dwarf planets as a separate category of object.
Several computer simulations of stellar and planetary system formation have suggested that some objects of planetary mass would be ejected into interstellar space.
A typical performance of all seven movements is about fifty minutes long, though Holst's own electric recording from is just over forty-two and a half minutes.
One explanation for the suite's structure, presented by Holst scholar Raymond Head, is the ruling of astrological signs of the zodiac by the planets:  if the signs are listed along with their ruling planets in the traditional order starting with Aries , ignoring duplication and the luminaries the Sun and Moon , the order of the movements corresponds.
Critic David Hurwitz offers an alternative explanation for the piece's structure: that Jupiter is the centrepoint of the suite and that the movements on either side are in mirror images.
Thus Mars involves motion and Neptune is static; Venus is sublime while Uranus is vulgar, and Mercury is light and scherzando while Saturn is heavy and plodding.
This hypothesis is lent credence by the fact that the two outer movements, Mars and Neptune, are both written in rather unusual quintuple meter.
Holst suffered neuritis in his right arm, which caused him to seek help from Vally Lasker and Nora Day, two amanuenses , in scoring The Planets.
Neptune was one of the first pieces of orchestral music to have a fade-out ending,  although several composers including Joseph Haydn in the finale of his Farewell Symphony had achieved a similar effect by different means.
Holst stipulates that the women's choruses are "to be placed in an adjoining room, the door of which is to be left open until the last bar of the piece, when it is to be slowly and silently closed", and that the final bar scored for choruses alone is "to be repeated until the sound is lost in the distance".
Several attempts have been made, for a variety of reasons, to append further music to Holst's suite, though by far the most common presentation of the music in the concert hall and on record remains Holst's original seven-movement version.
Pluto was discovered in , four years before Holst's death, and was hailed by astronomers as the ninth planet. Holst, however, expressed no interest in writing a movement for the new planet.
He had become disillusioned by the popularity of the suite, believing that it took too much attention away from his other works. In the final broadcast of his Young People's Concerts series in March , the conductor Leonard Bernstein led the New York Philharmonic through a fairly straight interpretation of the suite, though he discarded the Saturn movement because he thought the theme of old age was irrelevant to a concert for children.
The broadcast concluded with an improvised performance he called "Pluto, the Unpredictable". Matthews also changed the ending of Neptune slightly so that movement would lead directly into Pluto.
The suite was arranged for concert band and premiered in The work contains original themes, themes from The Planets, and other popular Holst melodies.
Holst adapted the melody of the central section of Jupiter in to fit the metre of a poem beginning " I Vow to Thee, My Country ".
As a hymn tune it has the title Thaxted , after the town in Essex where Holst lived for many years, and it has also been used for other hymns, such as "O God beyond all praising"  and "We Praise You and Acknowledge You" with lyrics by Rev.
Stephen P. The hymn was first performed in and quickly became a patriotic anthem. Although Holst had no such patriotic intentions when he originally composed the music, these adaptations have encouraged others [ who?
The melody was also adapted and set to lyrics by Charlie Skarbek and titled " World in Union ". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.Ein Planet (des Sonnensystems) ist gemäß der Definition der Internationalen Astronomischen Union (IAU) ein Himmelskörper,. (a) der sich auf einer. Auch die 17entdeckten Planeten Uranus und Neptun sowie der entdeckte Zwergplanet Pluto – bis Planeten sind Regionen von Missionen für bestimmte Gruppen von Schwierigkeiten und Fraktionen. Jeder Planet hat seinen eigenen Satz von Ressourcen und. Ein Planet ist ein stellares Objekt, welches in der Regel einen Stern auf einer Umlaufbahn.